A strong and growing peer reviewed evidence base now supports the Arclight and training package to be an effective and low-cost alternative to traditional more expensive devices. This research funded by a range of sponsors has led to a number of awards. It has been conducted in Malawi, Tanzania, Rwanda, India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom by a wide range of academic teams including:
These research publications have been published in a wide range of specialist ophthalmic journals such as EYE Nature, medical education journals including BMC Medical Education as well as more general journals such as the British Medical Journal.
Two major review articles have been published on the Arclight explaining the design concept, target users and broad uses of the device.
- Blaikie Andrew, Sandford-Smith John, Tuteja Sahib Y, Williams Christopher D, O’Callaghan Christopher. Arclight: a pocket ophthalmoscope for the 21st century BMJ 2016; 355 :i6637
- Kousha O, Blaikie A. The Arclight and how to use it. Community Eye Health. 2019;32(107):50-51. Epub 2019 Dec 17. PMID: 32123473; PMCID: PMC7041821
Comparative evaluations with traditional devices
Independent institutions have shown that the Arclight is just as effective as traditional devices for observing fundal reflex (red) abnormalities such as congenital cataract or retinoblastoma. Studies have also shown equivalence when examining for signs of disease of the optic nerve and retina such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Reports have come from normal healthy volunteers, patients in both clinic and in community ‘field’ settings, as well as simulation eye projects.
- Comparative evaluation of a novel solar powered low-cost ophthalmoscope (Arclight) by eye healthcare workers in Malawi. Blundell R, Roberts D, Fioratou E, et al.
- Red reflex examination in reproductive and child health clinics for early detection of paediatric cataract and ocular media disorders: cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy and feasibility studies from Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Eye (2020). Mndeme, F.G., Mmbaga, B.T., Kim, M.J. et al.
- Identification of amblyogenic risk factors with the Brückner reflex test using the low-cost Arclight direct ophthalmoscope. Eye (2021). Tuteja, S.Y., Blaikie, A. & Kekunnaya, R.
- Comparative evaluation of a low cost direct ophthalmoscope (Arclight) for red reflex assessment among healthcare workers in Malawi. Dooley E, Kousha O, Msosa J, et al.
- The Arclight Ophthalmoscope: A Reliable Low-Cost Alternative to the Standard Direct Ophthalmoscope, Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 2015, Article ID 743263, 6 pages, 2015. James Lowe, Charles R. Cleland, Evarista Mgaya, Godfrey Furahini, Clare E. Gilbert, Matthew J. Burton, Heiko Philippin,
- Arc Light as an Alternative Approach to Diagnose Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) At Grass Root. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, Jul.2018;34(3) Farah Riaz MMAM.
Studies have demonstrated that the device is an effective tool to teach direct ophthalmoscopy to medical students and other eye care trainees. The SIMulation tools are highly realistic, and considered more ‘real’ than very expensive traditional kit. As a package it all offers an important means to maintain quality teaching in the COVID era.
- Hytiris, M.L., Fioratou, E. & Gillan, S.N. The Arclight vs. traditional ophthalmoscope: a cross-over trial. Eye (2020).
- Gilmour-White, J.A., Picton, A., Blaikie, A. et al. Does access to a portable ophthalmoscope improve skill acquisition in direct ophthalmoscopy? A method comparison study in undergraduate medical education. BMC Med Educ 19, 201 (2019).
- Irfan, Abdullah & Moin, Muhammad & Chaudhry, Adeel & Amjad, Arooj & Pak, Asif & Siddiq, Lubna. (2019). TEACHING OPHTHALMOSCOPY WITH DIRECT VERSUS ARCLIGHT OPHTHALMOSCOPE IN NON-OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS.
- Veronica O’Carroll, Jean Baptiste Sagahutu, Denys Ndayambaje, Dieudonné Kayiranga, Gatera Fiston Kitema, Nadine Rujeni & Andrew Blaikie (2020). Evaluation of a pilot interprofessional Arclight™ workshop for healthcare students in Rwanda: promoting collaborative practice in eye health, Journal of Interprofessional Care
- Hetherington, M.J., Kousha, O., Ali, A.AM. et al. Comment on: Reshaping ophthalmology training after COVID-19 pandemic. Eye (2020).